Justin Moore, Ph.D. student in Clinical Psychology
Mindfulness is a concept not new to the world, yet over the past twenty to thirty years it has increased in popularity in the west. There are various interpretations of “mindfulness.” Here, mindfulness is defined as the cultivation of ones’ ability to become and remain present and aware, paying attention to our direct experience in the moment. Mindfulness is an integral part in many third wave psychological treatments (“third wave” meaning some of the latest psychological treatments) like Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). An ACT approach in psychotherapy is geared towards the evocation of increased mindfulness, acceptance, and psychological flexibility to help a person engage in behavior change linked to their values. A DBT approach in psychotherapy generally focuses on developing a person’s mindfulness capacity, distress tolerance, interpersonal effectiveness skills, and emotion regulation to foster an ability to interact appropriately with the world and themselves. Mindfulness practice has also been incorporated into some school curricula, military training, work settings, and professional sports, with NFL teams like the Seattle Seahawks speaking about the benefits of its practice.
Originally, the concept and practice of mindfulness developed in the Buddhist tradition and many of the scholars who have created third wave psychological treatments have studied Buddhism and cultivated mindfulness from its practice. As a psychology graduate student, learning and using this skill for myself and for the clients I serve has been exhilarating, captivating, and eye opening. I began to notice how living in such a fast-paced society contributed to us spending very little time with ourselves. Like those who developed ACT and DBT, I wanted to study the powerful phenomenon of mindfulness at its source because, to me, deepening one’s understanding requires experience. So, I traveled to Tibet last summer to learn as the Buddhist Monks have for centuries. There, I visited many Buddhist monasteries and temples, learning mindfulness and meditation as the monks have done. I sat side by side with people whose compassion was so powerful you could feel their joy, love, and appreciation for life and humankind. As I traveled hours cliffside on narrow dirt roads to Mt. Everest, the highest point on earth, and Rongbuk monastery, the highest monastery in the world, I thought about how fortunate I was to have a firsthand experience of things I had previously only read about in books.
I was taught from the wheel of life (Bhavacakra), which is a piece of art found in most Buddhist temples and monasteries. It is said Buddha himself created the wheel of life as a tool to help teach his disciples and others. In hopes to reach a larger audience, this was created to depict familiar entities to evoke connection and understanding of and with complex Buddhist philosophy. At the Potala palace, where the Dali Lama once lived before his banishment from Tibet, and at the Jokhang Temple, the oldest Buddhist temple in Tibet, founded in CE 647, the Monks welcomed me as if we were old friends. There, I saw beautiful artwork that told the story of Buddha, Buddhism, and the path to reach enlightenment. The foundation of their collective journey in Buddhism included having compassion for all beings, including insects, reptiles, mammals, and so on. In their teachings, they imparted knowledge about the interconnectedness of all beings and the importance of self-exploration through techniques like meditation. Meditation allows one to pay special attention to the self, to his or her emotions, thoughts, and his or her physiological responses to the environment. With practice, a space can be created between a person and these experiences so that one may take a step back to understand themselves on a deeper level. One meditation — a meditation on “precious human life” — resonated strongly with me. This meditative practice essentially illuminated the importance of being grateful for what one has and finding a place of contentment.
Aside from the Bhavacakra, many other symbols are used to impart knowledge in this ancient tradition. The lotus is an important image that I saw in many Buddhist paintings, statues, and carvings. It symbolizes purity and freedom. This has been chosen as a representation because it blossoms through the murky, muddy waters into a beautiful flower untouched by the murkiness. Thus, the lotus moved through a dirty environment, clean and dirt free. It is said we too have the potential to rise through the noise and murk of our daily lives: to emerge from our preoccupations with things not present, with pain, jealousy, negativity, anger, and hatred, to reach a level of centeredness and presence to experience the actual moments in our lives as they occur. For me, the journey to Tibet was profound and contributed greatly to my experiential learning of mindfulness, meditation, and the benefits linked to its practice.
This past July, the WMU Graduate College and the Office of Faculty Development offered an exciting new opportunity for new and returning graduate teaching assistants — the “Graduate Student Teaching Institute,” a week-long, intensive training course designed to improve and expand students’ pedagogical skills. Over the course of the week, graduate teaching assistants from various disciplines and programs participated in group workshops on topics such as how to motivate students to learn, how to master active learning strategies, metacognition for student engagement, improving communication for diverse learners, and techniques for using technology in the classroom.
Professor Suzan Ayers (HPHE), one of the co-directors and facilitators of the Institute, argues that this kind of training is invaluable to our TAs. “We expect graduate students to magically be able to teach, and give them classes with hundreds of undergrads. Our graduate students have specialized knowledge about their fields, but they might not know much about how to teach when they first arrive here,” she says.
Another challenge faced by graduate student instructors is the isolation they may feel within their own programs, and a need to speak to other teachers from diverse backgrounds. As participant and co-facilitator MaryKate Bodnar points out, “as a graduate student, it is easy to get stuck in our own departments, feeling isolated from the rest of WMU. I really enjoyed learning from these instructors and meeting other GTAs from around the university. There is power in diversity of experience, and GSTI offered us a venue to exchange ideas and experiences.”
Several other graduate students who participated in the GSTI remarked on the diversity of participants and backgrounds, noting this as one of the most valuable aspects of the institute. Shelby May, a new MA student in HPHE, found an immediate support group with her fellow grad students: “because I’m so new here, being with other students who’ve been in my shoes before, hearing people share their experiences… that was all very valuable. The students were very encouraging even though everyone came from different majors, backgrounds, and cultures. Despite all this, we were all were interested in the same things about teaching, and we made each other think and challenged each other.” Cody Williams, a fourth-year Ph.D. student in the Mallinson Institute’s program for science education, agrees, saying that one of the most memorable parts of the GSTI was “the diversity of people I met…. Coming from different disciplines, they have such different ideas and approaches, some coming to teaching from a purely practical standpoint, and others from a more creative or theoretical perspective. It was also great to meet different grad students from all over the world, and hear about different international approaches to teaching.” Despite the variety of experiences and backgrounds, Shelby observed that all participants (both faculty and grads) were regarded as being on an equal footing — “we were all colleagues, and everyone was in the same boat (including the facilitators!).” And it appears that the relationships forged during the GSTI will be long-lasting ones; as MaryKate reflects, “we built relationships with each other. It is wonderful to have contacts around the university that I can collaborate with to improve my teaching.”
Beyond having a chance to bond with students and faculty that they might not have otherwise met on campus, participants found the institute’s practical advice and open, honest discussions of teaching to be invaluable. Both Cody and Shelby praised the “nuts and bolts, realistic discussions of teaching,” while Emma Powell, a Ph.D. student in Public Administration, found inspiration in “the facilitators’ passion, energy, experience, and ‘war stories.’” Emma also noted that “the technology sessions and e-learning training were so applicable and the breakout and small-group sessions were most beneficial to process big concepts into usable nuggets of action and take-aways.” Shelby adds, “your brain was exhausted at the end of the week, but you really had the chance to ask real questions, and find out what you’re getting yourself into as a teacher.”
Both Shelby and Cody had high praise for two particular presentations: a workshop on metacognition and student engagement, offered by Andrea Beach (Director, Office of Faculty Development) and a presentation on the historical impact of Paul Robeson, by Paul Solomon (Professor, Frostic School of Art). Dr. Beach’s discussion made instructors think about how we coach and instruct our own students to study, to learn, and to apply — skills that instructors often take for granted. Mr. Solomon’s presentation focused attention on the importance of timing, structure, and order when you are planning to present information, as this can make the difference between a dry lecture and a moving narrative. Participants also had high praise for workshops on constructing handouts and syllabi, including a discussion of “first day of class practices,” in which facilitators suggested that instructors involve students in creating the syllabus, asking for class input in deciding the ground rules of the class. They also enjoyed Dr. Julie Apker’s (School of Communication and Graduate College Fellow) presentation, “Beyond the Classroom: Applying Teaching Skills to Broader Professional Goals,” a session particularly applicable for participants looking at the job market. All told, these kinds of workshops and small group discussions encouraged everyone to speak up and have an active, dynamic role in the Institute.
Creating a learning environment of this kind required collaboration among a number of experts on campus. Dr. Ayers, Dr. Beach, Mr. Solomon, Sarah Cox (OFD Doctoral Associate), Dr. Emily Walter (Post-doctoral Researcher in the CEHD), and Graduate College Dean Dr. Susan Stapleton worked together to conceptualize and build the schedule for the Institute. Says Dr. Ayers, “this institute was Sarah Cox’s brainchild — Sarah developed the curriculum for the institute, basing a lot on a one-year ‘learning community’ she had with several GTAs last year. Sarah developed the curriculum and she, Paul Solomon, and I all brainstormed about how to create this kind of learning opportunity.”
While the Institute seems to have been a rousing success all around, Dr. Ayers adds that this is a kind of “beta test year” for the event. The Graduate College and OFD plan to make the GSTI an annual opportunity for graduate students across the university, with participants receiving a certificate of completion. Beyond this, the GSTI is only the first component in a new Graduate Student Teaching Credential program (co-facilitated by Drs. Ayers, Walter, and Paul Solomon). Plans for this credentialing opportunity include requiring completion of the five day Teaching Institute, consistent participation in a learning community across the academic year 2014-2015, and production of a professional portfolio synthesizing their experiences, not to mention a significantly broadened “toolkit” of pedagogical knowledge, experience, and a support network that they will take with them into future roles as teachers and faculty members.
All participants we spoke to heartily recommended this experience for their fellow teachers. As MaryKate sums up, “It’s the workshop we all crave when we start teaching. It’s the best balance of theory, practical tips, and team building with other educators.”
— Ilse Schweitzer VanDonkelaar, WMU Graduate College
**The Office of Faculty Development continues to offer workshops, advising, and “Cool Tools” sessions intended to help graduate teaching assistants (and faculty) improve their teaching skills. Have a look at their website to see what’s coming up!